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Development of States and Empires

Number of and Size Grew


  • Persian Empires

  • Qin and Han

  • Maurya and Gupta

  • Phoenicia, Greek City-States

  • Hellenistic

  • Roman

  • Teotihuacan

  • Maya City-States

  • Moche



Political Forms
    • Centralized governments
    • Legal systems
    • Bureaucracies
    • Diplomacy
    • Supply lines
    • Roads, walls, fortifications
    • Local military
    • Currency
    Social Economic Dimensions

    • Cities (trade, cultural performance, government)
    • Social hierarchies

    • labor management (food production)

    • rewards to elites

    • Patriarchy shaped gender and family relations


    Decline and Collapse
    • Environmental damage: deforestation
    • Concentration of wealth
    • Frontier conflicts



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