Social Organization and Modes of Production

Labor Systems

  • Peasant production 
    • Russian Siberia 
    • cotton textiles in India 
    • silk in China
  • Slavery and Africa
    • continuation of exporting salves to Mediterranean and Indian Ocean
    • Growth of plantation economy in Americas increased demand for slaves
  • Coerced labor in the Americas
    • Chattel, encomienda, mit'a, indentured servitude

Exam Prep

How did serfdom change in Europe and Russia?
New Elites Restructured Ethnic, Racial, and Gender Hierarchies
  • New political and economic elites
    • Creole elites in Spanish America
    • Manchus in China
  • Existing elites
    • Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan
  • Gender and family restructuring 
    • Dependence of European men on Southeast Asian women for trade
  • New ethnic and racial classifications (mixed-race artwork)
    • Mestizo, mulatto, creole